How to Teach Students to Summarize

Students have a need to learn to study, and even more so with summarizing techniques.  Really studying is the mastery of skills, skills and techniques that are learned through exercises and that will allow us to reach the proposed goal with complete success, pass the school tests and learn to learn. Sometimes we see students who do not achieve academic success, and this is because they have no organization and because they are unaware of techniques and resources that can help them improve their work performance and facilitate the study of their subjects. The issue of school failure is obviously worrying. Numerous studies and research confirm that in many cases there are a high percentage of students who have learning problems because they do not have correct study habits.

Therefore, it is important to work the study Techniques of summarizing to verify what we know and to provide certain teachings, such as scheduling their work time, organizing their materials, teaching to read (with attention and understanding what they read), taking notes of correct way and summarize them so that later memorization is easier.

For all this, we will explain specifically what the Study Techniques consist of:

General reading of the text

            Read the text to have an overview of the subject and to see what relation it has with the subjects studied previously. It is also important to look at and read the title of the text, since it helps to understand it better. Reading is the most important practice for the study. It is the previous step, the general way to get in touch with a topic.

Comprehensive reading of each paragraph

Draw main ideas; see how many parts the text consists of. Then you will read the first paragraph slowly, asking: What are you talking about here? What does it say? If it is convenient, we must re-read as many times as necessary until we know what the paragraph is talking about. When we know, we write the general idea as summarized as possible. It can be done in the left margin of the text, with pencil and this will have to do with all the paragraphs.

Advantages of this technique:

  • It develops our capacity for analysis and observation.
  • Facilitates the understanding and structuring of ideas.
  • It forces us to ask ourselves what is the main thing and what is the secondary.
  • The study becomes more active; It forces us to focus more attention.
  • Facilitates the quick review and re-reading of the text.

Summarize the main ideas of each paragraph.

Synthesizing the study material is a key technique aimed at achieving the following objectives:

  • Clarify the structure of the subject by cutting out the essential and the important.
  • Hierarchically order ideas.
  • Minimize the length of text to be studied.
  • Facilitate review.
  • Determine in advance what is to be put on the exam and what can be omitted.
  • Facilitate active study.

In short, they will learn to have control and autonomy at the time of study and this will bring them increased self-esteem, school success and the creation of study habits which will allow them to enter into a virtuous circle of academic success by applying summarizing techniques.

Writing a Reference for Research Paper in APA Style Format

 

When someone hears the word “Research Paper”, he must think it of a massive process of research, reading and writing. It truly involves a great amount of work that includes accessing and reading of hundreds of articles, books, magazines, newspapers, websites, blogs and other sources to learn others’ thoughts, assumptions and opinions about a certain topic. In short, you can’t make a simple image in your mind that shows something like a poem from Shakespeare’s work, or a soulful song that you listen to while resting and recalling beautiful memories from your past. Rather you see a stack of books all around you, unlimited bookmarks in your internet browser, 8-10 hours of work every day, restless nights, unsocial life and a lot of other things that you would never like to do in your normal life.

What is APA Citation?

APA is the abbreviation of American Psychological Association which is responsible to create APA style and format. The association mainly focuses on psychology but it is not limited to it. It is also used in social sciences and behavior subjects and most researchers, scholars and authors prefer to use this formatting style. APA citing or APA style is undoubtedly the most popular way of making citations in a research papers. Though, there are various other formats like Chicago and MLA, science fields usually prefer APA formatting and style.

Why Citation is Important?  

One must keep in mind that a research paper is not just a combination of information on a certain topic but it is much more than this because it basically comes up with analysis and arguments on a certain point of a topic. No matter what type of paper you are working on, when you give your opinion, it must be backed up by proofs and opinions of others which should be properly cited in your paper by using APA, MLA or Chicago styles. When you use someone else work, you must give them credit for their work or when you want to let the people know that from where you take content to use as a reference in your paper, you have to use citation.

There are things which require sources because the readers might have to go and find the information again in future. For example, if the writer is telling about his personal life experiences, that does not have to be supported by citation because it may be a onetime event but on the other hand if the writer is giving some kind of statistic from other sources which also have the additional information for the readers if they are interested to get more, that may be given citation.

Why to Cite a Source? 

The 6th Edition of Publication Manual of APA tells us the most appropriated ways to structure a research paper and organize everything so effectively. It also contains grammar guidelines which will help you do everything as per standard grammatical rules. Here you can also find APA citations. As there are various good reasons to cite a source, some of them are as follow:

  • Credits: You should give credit to those who have created some information and the same you are using in your paper to support your research work.
  • Plagiarism: Another major reason to cite is to avoid plagiarism. The most important advantage of citation is that it helps you avoid plagiarism in your paper. Otherwise the duplicate content is considered as plagiarism which can be quite harmful for your paper. You should also try to know how you can avoid plagiarism as there are a number of good techniques.
  • Understanding: The third important reason is that in this way, other find can easily understand the way you have given the information if they are familiar with the information you have put in your paper.

Major Types and Elements of APA Citation Style

4 Major Elements of APA Citation

  • New Page: When you start writing your citation, use a new page to give references that should begin with running title.
  • Title: Type the title “References (it should be bold and centralized. It should not include any underline italics or quotation marks.
  • Entries: All entries should be double space and alphabetized
  • Source of Info: Each and every source of information that you have used in your paper should come in this section with a reference.

2 Main Types of Citation

  • In-Text Citation

This kind of citation is found in body of the paper and it is commonly used when you give a direct paraphrase or quote in your paper.

  • Reference citations

The second type is called reference citation which is basically a reference list inserted at the end of your paper. This list contains all of the sources that you have already used in different parts of your paper. One has to use variety of sources in a paper such as an article, a book, a website etc. It is important to note here that every time a different style is used as per the type of source.

What Can Be Cited?

  • Digital Book
  • Encyclopedia
  • Films
  • Interviews
  • Journal Articles
  • Lecture
  • Magazine
  • Newsletter
  • Photograph
  • Printed Book
  • Radio Broadcast
  • TV Show
  • Website

How to Cite a Book with APA Style?

Citing a Printed Book

Below you can check out the elements along with an example to cite a printed book in APA format. It is also important to note that:

  • The 1st letter of 1st word of each title that might also have some subtitles should be capitalized.
  • If you have proper nouns, make sure to capitalize 1st letter of each PN.
  • Full title as well as subtitles of referred book should be italicized and stated.
 

Elements

 

 

*  Author of the book

*  Year of publication of the book

*  Work Title

*  Name of Publisher

 

 

Example:

 

 

David, T.J. (1989). The Journey of Harry to Grave of Ghosts. US: Futuristic Inc.

 

 

 

Citing a Digital Book

If you have to cite a digital book that could be read on an electronic device such as computer, Ipad, Kindle etc, you will follow this pattern:

 

 

Elements:

 

 

*  Author

*  Publication Yearn

*  Work Title

*  Player Type

*  Retrieved from http://aaabbbccc.com

 

 

Example:

 

 

Nixon, S.D. (2001). The Secret of Simple But Happy Life (Book 2) [Kindle Version]. Retrieved from https://www.aaabbbccc.com/The-Secret-of-Simple But-Happy Life-Book/dp/0552243598

 

 

Note: The above given are just examples to help you understand how things get cited in APA style. Everything is cited with the help of proper APA Citation methods and you should learn each one of them to cite everything correctly.

5 Tips tDesired Gradeso Get Your

Being a good student doesn’t mean spending long hours in studying without any social life. There is always room for more enhancements, so you can always check and review your work you are doing. This approach has the strong potential to lead to higher satisfaction. If you want to get good grades and you are successful in fulfilling this goal, you’ll get an opportunity to enter a high ranking university, which will further lead you to your desired job. Explore the following and learn how to succeed in school by getting good grades.

  1. Research and obtain the information

Do not stop learning about raw facts. This approach will make you a smart student, while providing you with the analytical skills you need to acquire your desired grades. The key to success is that you should always ask yourself ‘why’. It means that you’ll need to learn why things work, why things matter, etc., and you can use such knowledgeand gain a vast amount of information.

  1. Use the others’ knowledge

If you use or benefit from others’ knowledge, this does not mean you are cheating someone. Using others’ knowledge means talking with your family members, buddies, and teachers about your study, and it is not cheating but it is guidance. You can ask them their views and opinions on your topics, observe the ways they addressa problem or learn how they do something. Once you open your mind to new and innovative ideas, you’ll be well equipped to face and tackle any challenge in your academic field.

  1. Be practical

Yes, you need to be practical in learning. It means that you will have to take part in group study with your class mates or friends. Through this approach you can easily get your friends’ help when you need it. Earning your desired grades is indeed a difficult job, and if it was easy, everyone would have, so you need to working collaboratively with your peers if you want to get good grades.

  1. Be well-organized

By having this skill, you can always store all academic assignments and projects in chronological order. If you do it you will feel that your academic life is getting better. It will assist you during examination. So, you must have best time management skills and you should organize your very well. Through this approach, you can easily manage your time to study and sleep. You can develop time management skills through adopting the following steps:

  • Do your homework assignments with ease. If you have been assigned a homework assignment with two days to complete it, you need to do it with easy by working on both days. Through this approach, you’ll be less stressed and able to end all your academic worries. Finally, you’ll have enough time to attempt other tasks.
  • Always use a calendar. An agenda is one of the highly crucial things you will need to succeed. For this, you need to jot down your assigned assignments when your teachers assign them to you with the specific deadline. This way, you will be able to avoid the delay.
  1. Make great efforts

You need talent, but perseverance is the most important. Never give up on yourself. If you cannot find the answer to a question in an assignment, think about it and write so that you can see what you are doing.

Writing a Reference for Research Paper in APA Style Format

When someone hears the word “Research Paper”, he must think it of a massive process of research, reading and writing. It truly involves a great amount of work that includes accessing and reading of hundreds of articles, books, magazines, newspapers, websites, blogs and other sources to learn others’ thoughts, assumptions and opinions about a certain topic. In short, you can’t make a simple image in your mind that shows something like a poem from Shakespeare’s work, or a soulful song that you listen to while resting and recalling beautiful memories from your past. Rather you see a stack of books all around you, unlimited bookmarks in your internet browser, 8-10 hours of work every day, restless nights, unsocial life and a lot of other things that you would never like to do in your normal life.

What is APA Citation?

APA is the abbreviation of American Psychological Association which is responsible to create APA style and format. The association mainly focuses on psychology but it is not limited to it. It is also used in social sciences and behavior subjects and most researchers, scholars and authors prefer to use this formatting style. APA citing or APA style is undoubtedly the most popular way of making citations in a research papers. Though, there are various other formats like Chicago and MLA, science fields usually prefer APA formatting and style.

Why Citation is Important?  

One must keep in mind that a research paper is not just a combination of information on a certain topic but it is much more than this because it basically comes up with analysis and arguments on a certain point of a topic. No matter what type of paper you are working on, when you give your opinion, it must be backed up by proofs and opinions of others which should be properly cited in your paper by using APA, MLA or Chicago styles. When you use someone else work, you must give them credit for their work or when you want to let the people know that from where you take content to use as a reference in your paper, you have to use citation.

There are things which require sources because the readers might have to go and find the information again in future. For example, if the writer is telling about his personal life experiences, that does not have to be supported by citation because it may be a onetime event but on the other hand if the writer is giving some kind of statistic from other sources which also have the additional information for the readers if they are interested to get more, that may be given citation.

Why to Cite a Source? 

The 6th Edition of Publication Manual of APA tells us the most appropriated ways to structure a research paper and organize everything so effectively. It also contains grammar guidelines which will help you do everything as per standard grammatical rules. Here you can also find APA citations. As there are various good reasons to cite a source, some of them are as follow:

  • Credits: You should give credit to those who have created some information and the same you are using in your paper to support your research work.
  • Plagiarism: Another major reason to cite is to avoid plagiarism. The most important advantage of citation is that it helps you avoid plagiarism in your paper. Otherwise the duplicate content is considered as plagiarism which can be quite harmful for your paper. You should also try to know how you can avoid plagiarism as there are a number of good techniques.
  • Understanding: The third important reason is that in this way, other find can easily understand the way you have given the information if they are familiar with the information you have put in your paper.

Major Types and Elements of APA Citation Style

4 Major Elements of APA Citation

  • New Page: When you start writing your citation, use a new page to give references that should begin with running title.
  • Title: Type the title “References (it should be bold and centralized. It should not include any underline italics or quotation marks.
  • Entries: All entries should be double space and alphabetized
  • Source of Info: Each and every source of information that you have used in your paper should come in this section with a reference.

2 Main Types of Citation

  • In-Text Citation

This kind of citation is found in body of the paper and it is commonly used when you give a direct paraphrase or quote in your paper.

  • Reference citations

The second type is called reference citation which is basically a reference list inserted at the end of your paper. This list contains all of the sources that you have already used in different parts of your paper. One has to use variety of sources in a paper such as an article, a book, a website etc. It is important to note here that every time a different style is used as per the type of source.

What Can Be Cited?

  • Digital Book
  • Encyclopedia
  • Films
  • Interviews
  • Journal Articles
  • Lecture
  • Magazine
  • Newsletter
  • Photograph
  • Printed Book
  • Radio Broadcast
  • TV Show
  • Website

How to Cite a Book with APA Style?

Citing a Printed Book

Below you can check out the elements along with an example to cite a printed book in APA format. It is also important to note that:

  • The 1st letter of the 1st word of the title as well as subtitles should be capitalized.
  • The 1st letter of proper nouns should also be capitalized.
  • Full title as well as subtitles of referred book should be italicized and stated.
 

Elements

 

 

ü  Author of the book

ü  Year of publication of the book

ü  Work Title

ü  Name of Publisher

 

 

Example:

 

 

Rowling, J.K. (1999). Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. USA: Scholastic Inc.

 

 

Citing a Digital Book

If you have to cite a digital book that could be read on an electronic device such as computer, Ipad, Kindle etc, you will follow this pattern:

 

Elements:

 

 

ü  Author, A.

ü  Year of Publication

ü  Title of work [E-Reader Version

ü  Retrieved from http://xxxx or DOI:xxxx

 

 

Example:

 

 

Rowling, J.K. (1999). Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (Book 3) [Kindle Version]. Retrieved from https://www.amazon.com/Harry-Potter-Prisoner-Azkaban-Book/dp/0545582938

 

Note: The above given are just examples to help you understand how things get cited in APA style. Everything is cited with the help of proper APA Citation methods and you should learn each one of them to cite everything correctly.